11 January 2015

Popular Interview Question Series: Higher-Order Functions and Function Binding

In technical interviews, it is common that the interviewer will throw in a question that tests your knowledge of higher-order functions and function-binding. If you are applying for a job as a JavaScript engineer, then you should expect an interview question in some similar form to the following:

Write a 'bind' method on the Function prototype that binds a context to a function and returns the bound version, so that when invoked, the returned function will be executed in the context passed into the bind method

Here is an example of the target objective:

This interview question is testing your knowledge of a few things:

  1. the .prototype property of function objects
  2. the concept of an object decorator (specifically, function object decorator)
  3. how to use JavaScript’s call, apply, and bind
  4. how to use first-class functions
  5. how to use higher-order functions
  6. what the arguments object is in JavaScript, and how to manipulate it into an Array

It is not enough to be able to solve this problem — you must be able to talk intelligibly about the previous 6 topics with your interviewer(s). So, let’s talk through a general approach to the problem and the constraints of the problem, then, we can walk through the code for one possible solution and the theory involved.

Problem Constraints and the Process of Finding a Solution

First, what is this problem even asking us to do?

When I approach a problem of any decent complexity, I like to break it down into stupid-obvious little parts.

  1. write a method called bind
  2. add the bind method as a property on the Function.prototype
  3. inputs: a context object to which the returned function should be bound
  4. outputs: a bound function

So, I need to figure out out to add a method to the Function.prototype. Next, I need to understand what it means to ‘bind’ a function to a context. Finally, I need to be aware of any edge-cases and ‘gotchas’ — e.g., what happens if no context is provided to our bind function?

Those problems are small and manageable — I know how to add a method to the .prototype property of an object. I think I know what it means to ‘bind’ a function to a context. Finally, I will remind myself to reconsider edge-cases as we progress. Let’s implement, then discuss.


  • line 2: anything passed into our bind function, other than the first ctx parameter, needs to get passed along as an argument when the bound function is invoked
    • use the Array.prototype.slice method on the arguments object
      • slice from index 1 to the length of arguments
  • line 3: we will be returning a new function as our bound function, so we want to store a reference to our old function first
    • capture the object that is currently bound to this — the function to bind
  • lines 5 - 9: the ‘decorated’ function object that can now be invoked in the context to which it was bound
    • line 6: the bound function needs access to any arguments with which it is invoked
      • use the same technique as above, and slice the arguments object
        • this time, slice the whole arguments object length because there are no named parameters in the bound function’s signature
        • store the array of arguments to the bound function in allArgs
    • line 7: concatenate the outer function’s arguments with the bound function’s arguments, and store them in the allArgs variable
    • line 8: return the original function, invoked in the context stored in closure, and pass along all of the arguments from the outer and inner function

That’s it! If that felt too fast, good — the next section is perfect for you.


The arguments Object

Every function object in JavaScript has an arguments object that the JavaScript interpreter manages. Every time that a function is invoked, all of the arguments with which the function are invoked are stored on the arguments object associated with the given function object. Maybe an example will elucidate:

Ignoring the .prototype and .call part, which we will explain below, the example above declares a function called func, which doesn’t have any ‘named’ parameters in its function signature, i.e., nothing is in-between the parentheses on line 1 where func is defined. This function, func, will access anything that you pass into it on invocation, from its arguments object. func will then loop through an array representation of the arguments object, and log each of the individual arguments with which the function was invoked at runtime.

If you are confused by the above paragraph, ignore the complexity — each argument that I pass in to func when invoking it on line 9 is going to get logged out, as seen on lines 11 through 18. I am able to log out each of the arguments without knowing ahead of time how many will be passed in, because I am accessing them from inside the function that they were passed to on invocation. That means, you never actually have to name your function parameters — we do it because we are lazy and it is a pain to always reference arguments.

Takeaways — any inputs you give to a function on invocation are made available within said function via the arguments object. Also, the arguments object is an object — if you want to treat it like an array, you need to turn it into an array by using something like .slice on the arguments object.

The .prototype Property

Briefly, the .prototype property is given by default to function objects in JavaScript, and that property stores an empty object. This empty object is used to store behavior (functions) that will be shared between different instances of the function object. If you are fuzzy on this topic, there are some great resources online, but here are two of my articles to start with: .prototype in the pseudo-classical style and the prototypal style class pattern.

The this Keyword

We want bind to return a new function that invokes the correct ‘bound’ function every time in a given context, but we don’t know what that bound function will be ahead of time. So, how can we access the function to bind the context to, if we don’t know its name? That is where the JavaScript keyword this comes in.

Based on a consistent set of rules, this is auto-bound at runtime to a context object. The rules for auto-binding this are based on function invocation context. That is all fancy for saying that each time you invoke a function, the interpreter ‘looks around’ and, depending on how you invoked the function, selects an object in the environment. Within the function declaration of the function that you are now invoking, the keyword this is auto-bound to the context object that the interpreter selected.

If the function was invoked in the global scope, this is bound to the global scope (the window in the browser).

If the function is invoked as a method — i.e., the function is a property on an object, and is invoked like object.func() — the this keyword is bound to the object to the left of the . of the function invocation. Anywhere within the body of the function that is currently being invoked, the this keyword refers to the object at invocation time.

If the function is invoked using either .call or .apply, within the body of the function that is currently being invoked, the this keyword refers to the first argument given to either .call or .apply on invocation. Let’s quickly run through JavaScript’s .call and .apply.

Forced-Context Function Invokers: .call and .apply

When the JavaScript interpreter invokes a function, the interpreter will automatically bind the keyword this within the function body to a likely focal object. If you, as a developer, want fine-grained control over the binding of the keyword this (the function invocation’s context object), you can force the interpreter to invoke the function in the context of an object of your choosing by using either .call or .apply to invoke the function. In this sense, you are forcing the interpreter to invoke your function with the keyword this bound to your specified context object. I like to call .call and .apply ‘forced-context function invokers’ because they force the context of function invocation.

exampleMethod.call({}); will invoke the exampleMethod with the keyword this assigned the empty object passed into .call. You can use .apply in the same manner as .call, to force the context of the function invocation to the first argument given to either .call or .apply.

The only difference between .call and .apply is the type of parameters that they take (after the context object). .call takes a list of comma-separated arguments, while .apply takes an array of arguments. That is the only difference. Here are two examples to solidify this discussion — the first example highlights the difference between using standard function invocation and .call, while the second example demonstrates the difference between standard function invocation and .apply.

We are actually now in a place to fully understand line 2 and line 6, so let’s turn there next.

Line 2 and Line 6

Based on the principles that we just covered, we can infer the meaning of lines 2 and 6.

  1. each function gets its own arguments object with arguments from invocation stored on the object
  2. the arguments object is not an array
  3. the .prototype property of the function object stores all of the shared functionality that each instance will inherit
  4. you can turn the arguments object into an array by using the slice method on the arguments object
  5. we can get access to the slice method by referencing Array.prototype.slice
  6. however, we want the slice to work on the arguments object, not the Array.prototype on which the method is being called
  7. we can force the context of the slice invocation by using either .call or .apply
  8. on line 2, we want to ignore the first argument (the context object), so we only want to slice from index 1 to the end, so we need to pass 1 into slice as an argument
  9. because our argument isn’t an array, we should use .call instead of .apply
  10. therefore, we are using the Array.prototype’s slice method on the arguments object, and we are invoking that slice method with a forced context by using .call and supplying the arguments object as the context object to .call

Now, we can sum up line 2 and line 6 — line 2 is storing all of the arguments passed into the outer bind function other than the first argument ctx, in a variable called ctxArgs. Line 6 is storing all of the arguments passed into the inner (bound) function in a variable called allArgs.

Great, the pieces are coming together! Let’s tackle the last few pieces of theory, and then we will see the full picture. We will start with the concept of a first-class function.

First-Class Functions

Some programming languages are ‘functionists’ — they discriminate against functions. Other languages, like JavaScript, treat functions as ‘first-class’ citizens. All that this means, is that JavaScript allows you to treat a function as you would any other object in JavaScript — if you can store a string in a variable, then you can store a function in a variable. If you can pass a number into a function invocation as an argument, then you can pass a function to another function invocation as an argument. If you can add properties to objects, you can add properties to function objects, ad nauseam

There are a lot of subtlties that I am glossing over, but for now, just know that this treatment of functions allows JavaScript to do some cool ‘functional’ programming techniques for which some other languages aren’t equipped.

If you look at our solution above, you will notice that the return value of the bind function is another function. No surprise that JavaScript allows us to do this — if you can return any other value in JavaScript, why not a function object? JavaScript allows this, once again, because functions are ‘first-class’ in JavaScript. Now that we understand the first-class treatment of functions, we can talk about this special type of first-class function treatment — the higher-order function. Let’s talk about higher-order functions now.

Higher-Order Functions

The term ‘higher-order function’ comes from mathematics, but has been adopted by computer science. Most functions are first-order functions. Some functions are termed higher-order for one or more of the following reasons:

  1. the function receives another function as an input
  2. the function returns a function as the output

In our solution above, the bind function is definitely a higher-order function. First, bind has an implicit function object inputbind is accessing the function to bind using the this keyword. This implicit access via this is equivalent to bind taking the function as an explicit input, so we can consider our bind function higher-order.

Further, the bind function also returns a function as its output, making bind higher-order in both of the ways specified above.

Not only is bind taking a function input and returning a function output, bind is returning a slight variation of the input function. There is a name for this pattern…


A decorator function is a function that takes an object as an input, changes the input object, and then returns the changed object. The function is taking an object, ‘decorating it’ with state or behavior, and then returning the decorated object. This function pattern is very common. There is a special type of decorator function, the function decorator, that I want to disucss now.

Function Decorators

A function decorator is a sub-type of the generic decorator function. The distinguishing feature of the function decorator is the type of object on which the decorator works. A generic decorator takes any object as an input and returns a decorated version of that object. A function decorator takes a function object as an input and returns a decorated version of the function object.

Because the input and output of a function decorator is, by definition, a function, we can infer a priori that a function decorator is a higher-order function.

We are now in position to understand the rest of the solution.

Full Solution Explanation

For reference, here is the complete solution again:

  1. The bind function is defined on the Function.prototype, so all function intstances will be able to use bind
  2. We can access the function that is invoking bind from within the body of bind by using the keyword this
  3. This ability to access the function that is invoking bind is equivalent to our bind function taking the function instance as an input; thus, bind is a higher-order function
  4. Also, bind returns a function on line 5 that returns our input function bound to a new context object on line 8
  5. a higher-order function that takes a function object input and returns a slightly ‘decorated’ version of that function object is classed a function decorator

One more pass!

  1. When bind is invoked on a function, we capture all of the ‘extra’ arguments by using Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments, 1) and store the extra arguments in a variable ctxArgs, on line 2
  2. In the outer scope of the bind function, we capture the current context object and store it in a variable func. We have to do this because we are going to enter a new function scope on line 5, and this will be bound to a new context, so before that happens, we store a reference to the original context object
  3. The return value of bind will be a function, returned on line 5
  4. The function that is returned on line 5 is defined in a closure scope, giving the function access to the ctxArgs and func which are declared in the outer scope of bind
  5. We want our returned function, when invoked, to call the original function in the context of ctx, which was passed into bind and is technically stored in the closure scope of our returned function
  6. In order to make our bind function accomodate new arguments that are passed into the bound function when it is invoked, we need to capture the arguments of the returned function and pass them along when we invoke the original function in the correct context
  7. We want to pass along all of the arguments — the arguments passed into the outer function and the new bound function — so we need to combine the ctxArgs and the inner arguments called allArgs. We store the combination of those two argument sets into allArgs
  8. Our returned function returns the invocation of our original function func in the context of ctx, with all of the arguments passed in — the invocation context is forced on line 8 by the use of func.apply(ctx, ...)
  9. Finally, notice that we pass all of the inner and outer arguments allArgs along to the invocation of the original function with func.apply(..., allArgs)


Wow, we covered a lot of conceptual and technical material in this post! Let’s summarize everything that you know now.

  • Function objects are automatically assigned a .prototype property, to which all of their instances will get access
  • Function objects are automatically assigned an arguments object that is filled with the arguments passed to the function on invocation
  • Turning the arguments object into an array is as simple as storing the result of Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments)
  • All function objects are executed in the context of an object which is auto-bound to the keyword this
  • All function objects can be forced to assign this to a given object if the function is invoked using either .call(objToBindToThis) or .apply(objToBindToThis)
  • The only difference between .call and .apply is how they treat the arguments after the first argument
  • JavaScript treats functions as first-class objects, i.e., functions can be used as arguments, variable values, return values, etc.
  • A higher-order function is a function that either takes a function input or returns a function as output
  • A function decorator, a type of higher-order function, is a function that takes a function as input, and then returns a ‘decorated’ version of that function as the output
  • All of the principles necessary to compose your own solution to this question in any interview situation!

Decorated, Bound, Returned™

With love,